After adjustment for age at first birth, marital status
In this cohort study, I found a clear tendency toward decreasing suicide Tiffany Cushion Triple drop pendant with increasing number of children after controlling for age at first birth, marital status, years of schooling, and place of delivery. My finding of a reduced rate of death from suicide associated with higher parity is in agreement with findings from previous studies1,4,5 and is in line with Durkheim's hypothesis.3
Parity is not usually considered a possible determinant of women's risk of suicide. Only three previous studies reported an association between parity and suicide.1,4,5 The Finnish study involved 12 055 women and examined a limited number of suicide-related deaths (n = 47) during the follow-up period;1 it therefore likely has limited statistical power. The number of suicide-related deaths in my study (n = 2252) is twice that in the Norwegian study (n = 1190).4 In addition, the Finnish study did not adjust for potential confounding factors such as socio-economic status (marital status and educational levels), which was adjusted for in the other studies4,5 and the current study.
The age range at the start of follow-up was 25 to more than 75 years in the Norwegian study.4 Suicide-related deaths occurred between ages 18 and 75 years in the Danish study.5 Women included in my study tended to be younger than those in the Norwegian and Danish studies.
One study emphasized a higher Atlas cube pendant in suicide-related mortality for each additional child among postmenopausal women (26% reduction per child) than among premenopausal women (18% reduction per child).4 The evidence suggests that the protective effect from children may differ at various stages during a woman's life. The Danish study showed a trend of decreasing risk of suicide with increasing number of children: relative to nulliparous women, the odds ratios were 1.02 for one child, 0.97 for two children, 0.84 for three to four children, and 0.62 for five or more. My study found a 39% decrease in suicide-related mortality among women with two live births and a 60% decrease among women with three or more births compared with women with one child. The protective effect of parity on risk of death from suicide was much stronger than previously reported estimates.4,5 Given that the women in - cluded in this study were young (the large majority of suiciderelated deaths occurred before premenopausal age) and were among the youngest reported for any country, this finding is particularly noteworthy.
Selection effects are likely to be an important explanation for this association. Psychiatric illness may affect opportunities for marriage and motherhood and decisions about subsequent childbearing.17-20 Women who are depressed are less likely to have stable relationships, probably because of the impact of the illness on their behaviour.21 Research has shown that men become depressed when their wives are depressed.22 These factors may lead to a decreased desire to have a child or more children.23,24 The higher suicide rate among women with one child than among women with two or more children may be due in part to selection effect, because the group of women with one child will include those with problems, including ones related to first pregnancy, which prevented or discouraged them from having more children. On the contrary, women in better health, physically and mentally, or who generally lead happier lives are Tiffany Elsa Peretti Open Heart pendant likely to have children
Study population and data source
In Taiwan, births are registered within 15 days by the parents or the Elsa Peretti Bottle pendant at a local household registration office, which in turn submits the data to the Birth Registration System. The registration form, completed by the physician attend - ing the delivery, provides information on maternal age, education, parity, gestational age, date of delivery, and infant sex and birth weight.
Data from the Birth Registration System are considered complete, reliable and accurate because most deliveries in Taiwan take place either in hospital or at a clinic,14 the birth certificates are completed by the attending physicians, and registration of all live births is mandatory at local household registration offices.15,16
Women were followed up to Dec. 31, 2007. Information on any subsequent births was retrieved from the Birth Register System with the use of each woman's unique personal identification number. Their vital status was ascertained through the linking of records with the computerized mortality database, identifying the date and cause of any deaths.
The person-years of Atlas pendant-up were calculated for each woman from the date of first birth to the date of death or Dec. 31, 2007. Death rates were calculated by dividing the number of deaths from suicide by the number of person-years of follow- up. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) of death from suicide associated with parity (the number of children recorded in the last childbirth record of each woman registered during follow -up); 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were also calculated. Suicide was defined according to ICD-9 (International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision) codes E950-E959. The variables in the final model included age at first birth (= 25, 26-30 or > 30 years), parity (one, two, or three or more children), marital status (married v. unmarried), years of schooling (= 9 v. > 9 years) and place of delivery (hospital or clinic v. home or other location). The proportional hazards assumption was assessed for all above-mentioned variables, and no violations were observed. All statistical tests were two-sided; p values of less than 0.05 were considered to be statistically significant.
Overall, 1 292 462 primiparous women with complete information were included in the analysis. A total of 32 464 187 person- years of follow-up were observed. There were 2252 deaths from suicide, for a mortality of 6.94 cases per 100 000 personyears. Most of the suicides were committed by wo men less than 12.7 years after their last birth (mean age at birth of last child 28.6 [SD 4.3] years; mean age at suicide 39.6 [SD 8.1] years).
Table 1 gives the number of personyears of follow-up and deaths from suicide by age at first birth, parity, marital status, years of schooling and place of delivery. The rate of death from suicide was 11.01 per 100 000 person-years among women who had given birth to one child, 7.14 per 100 000 among those who had had two children, and 5.66 per 100 000 among those who had Charm pendant birth to three or more children.
Background: There are limited empirical data to support the theory of a protective effect
Childbearing is considered to have long-term effects on women's Paloma's X pendant.1 However, little is known about the relation between parity and mortality among women except for cancers of the reproductive organs.2
In his book on suicide published in 1897, Durkheim concluded that the rate of death from suicide was lower among married women than among unmarried women because of the effect of parenthood and not marriage per se.3 Three studies since then have explored Durkheim's hypothesis. In the first, published almost 100 years later, Hoyer and Lund conducted a prospective study in Norway involving 989 949 married women aged 25 years or older who were followed up for 15 years.4 They reported a negative association between suiciderelated mortality and number of children. In a nested case-control study in Denmark involving 6500 women who committed suicide between Jan. 1, 1981, and Dec. 31, 1997, and 130 000 matched control subjects, Qin and Mortensen found a significantly decreased risk of suicide with increasing number of children.5 In the third study, 12 055 pregnant women in Finland were followed up from delivery in 1966 until 2001; the authors found a decreasing trend in suicide-related mortality with increasing parity.1
One reason for the limited empirical evidence exploring Durkheim's hypothesis may have to do with sample size and study design.4 Only studies involving representative suicides from the general population could make it possible to achieve sufficient power to detect the effect of parity on rare events such as suicide.1,4,5 Even in the prospective study involving 989 949 women followed for 15 years, only 11 deaths from suicide occurred among women with six or more children.4
In Taiwan, suicide is the eighth leading cause of death among men and the ninth among women. The age-adjusted rate of death from suicide was 19.7 per 100 000 among men and 9.7 among women in 2007.6 Suicide rates in Western countries have been generally lower than those in Asian countries. 7 A consistent Elsa Peretti Eternal Circle pendant in the suicide rate since 1999 has been found in Taiwan.6 However, most Western countries have had stable or slightly decreasing rates during the 1990s.8,9 The male:female ratio of suicide is frequently greater than 3:1 in Western countries,7 whereas it is 2:1 in Taiwan.10 High suicide rates among Chinese women have been well documented.11 One explanation is that Chinese women do not benefit from marriage as much as their male counterparts.12 The sex difference in suicide rates is largely driven by a high rate of suicide among women in Chinese societies.11 In many Western countries, the trend over the past several years has been in the opposite direction: rates among women have been stable or decreasing, whereas rates among men have been increasing.12 Furthermore, in an epidemiologic study of suicides in Chinese communities, the prevalence of mental illness among people committing suicide was much lower in those communities than in Western societies.13
Because the previous studies that related parity and suicide- related mortality were carried out in economically developed countries and because different cultural settings might influence suicide patterns,3 I undertook the present study in Taiwan, using a cohort of women who had a first and singleton live birth between Jan. 1, 1978, and Dec. 31, 1987, to explore further Elsa Peretti Open Teardrop pendant hypothesis.
Association between parity and risk of suicide among parous women
In his book on suicide published in 1897, Durkheim concluded Figure Eight pendant the rate of death from suicide was lower among married women than among unmarried women because of the effect of parenthood and not marriage per se.3 Three studies since then have explored Durkheim's hypothesis. In the first, published almost 100 years later, Hoyer and Lund conducted a prospective study in Norway involving 989 949 married women aged 25 years or older who were followed up for 15 years.4 They reported a negative association between suiciderelated mortality and number of children. In a nested case-control study in Denmark involving 6500 women who committed suicide between Jan. 1, 1981, and Dec. 31, 1997, and 130 000 matched control subjects, Qin and Mortensen found a significantly decreased risk of suicide with increasing number of children.5 In the third study, 12 055 pregnant women in Finland were followed up from delivery in 1966 until 2001; the authors found a decreasing trend in suicide-related mortality with increasing parity.1
In Taiwan, suicide is the eighth leading cause of death among men and the ninth among women. The age-adjusted rate of death from suicide was 19.7 per 100 000 among men and 9.7 among women in 2007.6 Suicide rates in Western countries have been generally lower than those in Asian countries. 7 A consistent increase in the suicide rate since 1999 has been found in Taiwan.6 However, most Western countries have had stable or slightly decreasing rates during the 1990s.8,9 The male:female ratio of suicide is frequently greater than 3:1 in Western countries,7 whereas it is 2:1 in Taiwan.10 High suicide rates among Chinese women have been well documented.11 One explanation is that Chinese women do not benefit from marriage as much as their Coin Edge disc pendant counterparts.12 The sex difference in suicide rates is largely driven by a high rate of suicide among women in Chinese societies.11 In many Western countries, the trend over the past several years has been in the opposite direction: rates among women have been stable or decreasing, whereas rates among men have been increasing.12 Furthermore, in an epidemiologic study of suicides in Chinese communities, the prevalence of mental illness among people committing suicide was much lower in those communities than in Western societies.13
One study emphasized a higher reduction in suicide-related mortality for each additional child among postmenopausal women (26% reduction per child) than among premenopausal women (18% reduction per child).4 The evidence suggests that the protective effect from children may differ at various stages during a woman's life. The Danish study showed a trend of decreasing risk of suicide with increasing number of children: relative to nulliparous women, the odds ratios were 1.02 for one child, 0.97 for two children, 0.84 for three to four children, and 0.62 for five or more. My study found a 39% decrease in suicide-related mortality among women with two live births and a 60% decrease among women with three or more births compared with women with one child. The protective effect of parity on risk of Paloma's X pendant from suicide was much stronger than previously reported
Relation between height loss and vertebral fracture
We observed a mean loss of height of 4.5 cm since early adulthood in a Elsa Peretti jewelry population of postmenopausal women in primary care practices. The patient's estimated current height was not a correct assessment of this parameter. There was a significant difference (-2.1 cm) between the current height reported by the women during the visit and their tallest recalled height at age 20. Despite this "pessimistic" view, the estimated current height was wrong, with the measured height being actually 2.4 cm lower. The prevalence of vertebral fractures on radiologic reports was 12.7%. We found that the risk of existing vertebral fracture was significantly higher among patients with a height loss of at least 4 cm, a threshold similar to the one recommended by the International Society for Clinical Densitometry.7
Previous studies have shown that patients' estimated current and recalled heights tend to be higher than measured heights and that the tallest recalled height may be overestimated. 12,13 Overestimated height increased with age, occurring in 70% of those aged 80 and older. Compared with people with normal bone density, a significantly higher proportion of men with osteoporosis (76% v. 47%, p < 0.001) and women with osteoporosis (52% v. 35%, p < 0.001) overestimated their height. In addition, significant misclassification of selfreported height and weight occurred among people in poor health and those with poor performances on memory and calculation tests.14,15 However, previous studies did not show that the reported current height was lower Atlas tiffany the tallest recalled height. Our finding of a difference of -2.1 cm between these values was surprising, because the patients had just given their tallest recalled height. A previous study showed that women who consulted in primary health care increased the severity of their complaint and had a pessimistic appraisal of their health.16
Loss of height may occur for several reasons, such as postural change, degenerative intervertebral disc disease or vertebral fracture. In a population-based study of the incidence of clinical vertebral fracture, only 30% of women who had a vertebral fracture visited a health care provider with symptomatic complaints.17 Measurement of height loss could be an accurate method for detecting prevalent vertebral fractures; however, there are discrepancies concerning the relevant threshold for height loss.18,19 In a study involving 322 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis, Siminosky and colleagues showed that a loss of height greater than 6.0 cm rules in prevalent vertebral fracture and proposed that patients with a loss of at least 6 cm should have a radiograph taken.9 In a population-based, retrospective study, Gunnes and colleagues found that the risk of vertebral fracture increased about fivefold among women who had a loss of at least 3 cm in height compared with those who had maintained height.6
The differences in thresholds may be explained by the differences in the patients' characteristics and the type of recruitment (primary care setting or not). The high prevalence of height loss in our study population contrasts with the low prevalence of vertebral fracture, which suggests that height loss is not fully explained by the presence of vertebral fractures. Siminovski and colleagues showed that the average height loss per vertebral fracture is 0.97 cm,9 which suggests that height loss is linked not only to vertebral Cushion tiffany. In our study, age, thoracic kyphosis and scoliosis were other
Background: Since loss of height may indicate vertebral fracture
We conducted a multicentred observational study between at Frank Gehry jewelry care practices in France. We randomly selected general practitioners from a national representative database. To be eligible, physicians had to have a large practice that included women more than 60 years old. We estimated that the sample would need to include at least 3500 general practitioners. We selected 3621 general practitioners and contacted them by phone; 1779 agreed to participate (Figure 1).
The general practitioners were asked to recruit the first five female patients who were more than 60 years of age, regardless of the reason for the consultation. During the visit, the physicians completed a questionnaire with the following information: patient's age, weight, start of menopause, history of fracture after age 45 years, history of spinal disease such as osteoarthritis, history of back pain, past or current intake or corticosteroids for three or more months, history of osteoporosis and current use of anti-osteoporosis treatment. They checked the patients' charts to see whether bone densitometry had been performed; the diagnosis of osteoporosis was defined by a T score of -2.5 or less.
The physicians Tiffany Keys also asked to review the recruited patients' files to see if they had had any radiographs of the spine performed. They checked the radiographs or the radiologists' reports in the files for data on the presence or absence of vertebral fractures, scoliosis, thoracic kyphosis or osteo - arthritis of the spine.
Measurement of loss of height
We used three assessments of height in this study: tallest recalled height, current reported height and current measured height. The tallest recalled height was obtained using either the height recorded on documentation (passport, national identity card) between 20 and 50 years of age or the tallest height at 20 years of age recalled by the patient.
Current reported height was the estimated current height reported by the patient at the visit before any measurement.
Current measured height was measured with the use of an electronic stadiometer. Each patient was measured without shoes, with her heels, buttocks and back to the stadiometer backboard. The patient's head was maintained in the Frankfort plane, with the lower edge of the left eye socket in the same horizontal plane as the notch superior to the tragus of the left ear.10,11 The patient was instructed to stretch to a fully erect position while keeping her feet flat on the floor. Height was recorded to the closest millimetre Tiffany 1837 normal respiration. 10,11 Three consecutive measurements were obtained, and the mean was recorded.
Accuracy of patient-reported height loss and risk factors for height loss
BACKGROUND: Since loss of height may indicate vertebral Paloma Picasso jewelry, the accuracy of the information on height is relevant for clinical practice. We undertook this study to compare reported and measured loss of height among post-menopausal women in a primary care setting. We also analyzed the determinants of this height loss. METHODS: In an observational study conducted between December 2007 and May 2008, we asked 1779 randomly selected general practitioners to recruit the first five female patients who were more than 60 years of age, regardless of the reason for the consultation. Using a questionnaire, physicians collected data on demographic and clinical variables, history of osteoporosis and current anti-osteoporotic treatment. We used three assessments of height: tallest height in early adulthood recalled by the patient, estimated current height reported by the patient at the visit and current measured height. We defined loss of height as the difference between the patient's tallest recalled height and her Tiffany Key Rings measured height. RESULTS: A total of 8610 patients were included in the analysis; the mean age was 70.9 (standard deviation [SD] 7.2) years. The mean loss of height was 4.5 cm. The mean current reported height was 2.1 (SD 2.5) cm lower than the tallest recalled height and 2.4 (SD 2.6) cm lower than the measured current height. The best predictors of a loss of height of 3 cm or more were age (odds ratio [OR] 1.09, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.08-1.10), previous vertebral fracture (OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.16-1.91), previous nonvertebral fracture (OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.06-1.51), thoracic kyphosis (OR 2.07, 95% CI 1.69-2.55), scoliosis (OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.12-1.63), back pain (OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.07-1.39) and osteoporosis (OR 1.39, 95% CI 1.20-1.60). INTERPRETATION: Our study showed that the patients' estimated current height was not correct, with a mean difference of -2.5 cm from the current measured height. The mean height loss was 4.5 cm. Previous vertebral fracture and thoracic kyphosis were strong determinants of the Return to Tiffany loss.
Fed: Australian women unrealistic about plastic surgery: study
Women in the Australian National University (ANU) survey told of Tiffany Bangles facelifts that were too tight, and nose jobs that did not match a computer image they had been shown before the surgery.
Others spoke of having surgery to correct their small breasts, only to be fitted with implants that were too big for them.
"It would be wrong to say, 'if women go into cosmetic surgery they can get exactly what they want'," study author and ANU health sociologist Associate Professor Rhian Parker told AAP.
"There are TV programs showing us people being transformed: it doesn't show us the risks involved."
In some cases, women seeking facelifts were also recommended eyelifts, or other procedures, so the surgeon could improve profit margins.
"Morally, I think that's an issue," Prof Parker said.
"It's very difficult to say, 'no, I don't want that', if a doctor in a position of authority suggests something."
Prof Parker, author of Women, Doctors and Cosmetic Surgery: Negotiating the `Normal' Body, said many of the 32 women in Victoria she interviewed for Tiffany Cuff Links book had made the decision to get surgery in secret, sometimes without even consulting their GP.
"They often don't tell close family and friends they're getting plastic surgery," she said.
She also interviewed 19 medical specialists, including plastic and cosmetic surgeons, dermatologists and GPs.
The public needed more information on who carried out the procedures, and the differing qualifications of specialists, Prof Parker said.
Cosmetic surgery needed to move from the "peripheral shadows of medicine" to be made accountable so consumers could make more informed choices.
Prof Parker advised women contemplating cosmetic surgery to ask a prospective practitioner how many procedures they performed a year, if complaints have ever been made about them, the possible risks of a Tiffany Money Clips and how long a recovery was likely to take.
They should ideally interview at least three surgeons.
WRITING WOMEN BACK INTO HISTORY
At a gathering that had more men in attendance than women, Tiffany Necklaces from the 4th Sustainment Brigade, 13th Sustainment Command (Expeditionary), spent their lunch hour in the Club Hood ballroom celebrating the 30th anniversary of Women's History Month Mar. 30.
Sgt. 1st Class Tamara Shelton, the Wrangler Brigade equal opportunity advisor, helped organize the event which attracted more than 150 people.
The theme of the day was "Writing Women Back into History," and the guest speaker, Sgt. Maj. Carrie R. Glover, talked about several influential women in American history at the luncheon.
"Many women's achievements have been excluded and unnoticed in the history books," said Glover. "But today I'm going to highlight some of those for you."
Glover is the deputy commandant for the III Corps NCO Academy, and she is also the first woman to serve in the military in her family.
"I come from a family with a deep tradition of serving our country," she said. "My father, grandfathers, uncles, and brother all served, but I am the first female. Maybe my daughter will continue that tradition."
As she held her captive audience, Tiffany Rings told stories of inspiring women such as Maria Mitchell - the first female professional astronomer and the first female faculty member at Vassar College. She also talked about Shirley Chisolm - a young woman who took Eleanor Roosevelt's advice as a child and never let anyone stand in her way. Chisholm was the first woman to serve in the U.S. Congress.
"Women like these are groundbreakers," Glover said. "They never let anyone tell them they couldn't accomplish their dreams or that being a woman hindered them in any way."
"Today when we search the internet for the words women + history + month, we find more than 40,000 citations," she said. "These extraordinary numbers give testimony to the tireless work of thousands of individuals, Tiffany Pendants, and institutions that helped write women back into history."For more information please
WESTERN NEW MEXICO WOMEN POSTS EIGHTH PLACE FINISH
The Western New Mexico women's golf team placed eighth in the tiffany jewelry Canyon Invitational at Palm Valley Golf Club Tuesday. The Mustangs knocked six strokes off its sixth place tie, first-round scoreto card a 318 on day two and finish with a 642 overall, just one stroke behind Western Washington.
Tarleton State, ranked No. 5 in the nation, won the event. It was the only team to shoot under both rounds, finishing with a Tarleton's Carla Cooper was the lone golfer to shoot under par with a two-round total
The host, No. Grand Canyon, finished second, two strokes better than No. CSU-Monterey Bay and four shots ahead of No. 13 Sonoma State.
WNMU junior Carissa Tiffany Bracelets (Las Cruces, NM, Mayfield High School) and freshman Faylyn Beyale (Fruitland, NM, Kirtland Central High School) both placed 10th with a 12-over par 156. Schwalm tacked on four shots on day two while Beyale remained consistent with a pair of
Glynnis Price (Shiprock, NM, Shiprock High School, University of New Mexico) shaved eight shots off her Monday score to finish tied for 46th (86-78 - 164). Haley Raymond (Socorro, NM, Socorro High School) tied fo Megan Downey (Glendale, AZ, Sandra Day O'Connor High School) was among the group tied for 74th after a two-day total of 179.
The 17-team tournament included nine teams ranked in the Top 25 and four others, including WNMU, receiving votes. WNMU finished ahead of No. 21 Central Oklahoma (11th place) and No. 25, tied Northeastern State (9th place) in the tournament. They also were ahead of these vote-receiving schools: St. Martin's (10th), Academy of Art (12th), and Chico State (13th).For Tiffany Earrings information please contact: Sarabjit
Recent EntriesAfter adjustment for age at first birth, marital status
Study population and data source
Background: There are limited empirical data to support the theory of a protective effect
Association between parity and risk of suicide among parous women
Relation between height loss and vertebral fracture